Native American history generated a significant number of questions on the May SAT II and the regular APUSH exam. Here is Part II of my list of key facts from Native American history that you need to know:
11. HORSES – not native to the New World. Had a great impact on the lives and culture of Plains Indians.
12. PONTIAC’S REBELLION – prompted the British to issue the Proclamation Line of 1763
13. TECUMSEH – renowned Native American orator and leader who attempted to unite Indian tribes in the Northwest; allied with the British in 1812
14. WORCHESTER v. GEORGIA – Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Cherokees. However, President Jackson refused to enforce the Court’s ruling.
15. THE TRAIL OF TEARS – began in northern Georgia and led to Indian Territory (Oklahoma); one-fourth of the Cherokee died on the Trail of Tears
16. TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROADS – had a deleterious impact upon the Plains Indians by leading to the slaughter of the buffalo herds.
17. CENTURY OF DISHONOR – book by Helen Hunt Jackson that castigated the US government for its unjust treatment of Native Americans. The book led to a public outcry and calls for reform. This prompted Congress to pass the well-meaning but harmful Dawes Severalty Act.
18. DAWES SEVERALTY ACT (1887) – divided tribal lands into individual holdings; modeled after the Homestead Act; led to the loss of millions of acres of tribal lands; later partially reversed by the New Deal’s Indian Reorganization Act
19. GHOST DANCE – Indian ceremonial dance that expressed the distress Plains Indians felt over the loss of their tribal autonomy
20. NAVAJO CODE TALKERS – during WWII Navajo served as code talkers in the Pacific theater; the Japanese were unable to translate the Navajo language so it was an ideal secret code.